Art has always been a way for people to express themselves in a
deep and personal way. Weather it is painting, drawing, printmaking, sculpture,
music, poetry, or writing, art has a way not only to touch our souls but to
allow the creator to communicate through us to touch others. I art to express myself through music and
painting. I will start with, The
Garden of Earthly Delights by Hieronymus Bosch.
Garden of Earthly Delights by Hieronymus Bosch.
I am excited about this week. I am going to start and hope I am not being to bold. When we think of art and the bible, we often think about the Renaissance Artist, Michelangelo, Raphael, Leonardo and Donatello, but there were many others. Hieronymus Bosch, Albrecht Durer, Caravaggio, Jan van Eyck, Lucas Cranach the Elder, Nuno Gonçalves, Federico Barocci, etc… The Garden of Earthly Delights is one of two triptychs he painted on the same subject. The closed panels depicted the creation and the inner panels depicted Heaven, Earth, and Hell.
The Garden of Earthly Delights was painted between 1490 and 1510. Bosch was 40-60 years old. The Haywain Triptych, 1516, would have been painted just before his death in August 1516. Compare the two, the earlier was obviously more graphic and gruesome than the latter. Had Bosch’s image of God softened? What are your thoughts?
Renaissance Artist were divided by The Italians and the German artist. Albrecht Durer was a German print maker painter. His Apocalypse woodcuts are some of his most famous. I love Durer’s Portrait of the 12-year-old Christ. It has the feel of Leonardo’s paintings. His woodcuts are wonderful!
There are literally millions of ways artists can depict God’s glory. Artist have used their abilities to their biblical interpretations as the Renaissance masters did, to today using art to re-frame what the bible means to them today. “God is really only another artist. He invented the giraffe, the elephant and the cat. He has no real style, he just keeps on trying other things.” – Pablo Picasso
Bible art that excites me!
Jesus was Laughing
My Bible Art
I have used art to interpret what the Bible means to me.
Tupac and God
When I was in high
school, I was a full on creative. Painting, singing, dancing, acting and
fashionably expressing myself. As I have grown into adulthood a lot of those
things began to be replaced by checking all things off the list that prove you
are an adult. In it all I lost myself. The one creative part of me that I have
been consistently able to sustain in my expression through fashion., and
I recently painted
this painting of the artist and rapper, Tupac. I know it probably doesn’t look
like Tupac to you, but it is. Each little dot represents a moment in his
lineage, life, music and connection with God.
Queering of Michelangelo’s David
The tattoos are art from queer artists, quotes from personal
friends who identify as queer, and names of those who have died in hate crimes.
This is my statement of Inclusion. I
hope all get some Joy from this. Love
As I start this
discussion I want to state, “I have never met a person that wanted to be
tolerated. I have only met those that want to be accepted and loved!” Tolerance
is an illusion of inclusion meant to keep us separated and divided while, we
say “I accept” a person or group partially. I accept them, but only on things
and terms we agree on. Tolerance is an overused word and a limited frame of
mind. The Gospel of Jesus Christ requires more of us, and it frees us
from our “own limited comfort zone.” (Gomes 2007 p. 203)
In “The Scandalous Gospel
of Jesus,” chapter nine “An Inclusive Gospel,” Gomes, begins with Act 10: 34
KJV, “Of the truth I perceive that God is no respecter of persons.” (Gomes 2007
p. 187) I would like to add two more scriptures to this line of thought
from John, John 10: 16, “And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold:
them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one
fold, and one shepherd.” John 11: 51-52, “51 And this spake he not of himself:
but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus should die for that
nation; 52 And not for that nation only, but that also he should gather together
in one the children of God that were scattered abroad. KJV” These scriptures
lay out the complete inclusiveness we are to have not just in a church,
Christendom, but towards all people that come into our lives. It includes us
all, those who ever were, who are today, and who will be.
Gomes spends some time in
pointing to how we have separated ourselves into groups, parties,
denominations, etc. (tribalism). “Christians all too easily came to repudiate
those who repudiated them.” (Gomes 2007 p. 189) We still see this today as some
continue to repudiate Jewish people, others, Muslim, others, Christians,
peoples of color, social backgrounds, gender identity, roles of men and women,
and on and on. In Chapter 7 Gomes starts with a story or modern-day
parable about two missionaries in white shirts appearing at the door of a home.
They ask the person who answers the door, “Would you like to spend eternity in
heaven?” the person replies, “Will you be there?” Missionaries answer, “Yes.
Most definitely!” The person then replies, “Then I don’t want to go.”
Gomes point is “Some people cannot imagine anyone else in their eternity; they
imagine heaven to be as exclusive as their own church, filled with people
remarkably similar people.” (Gomes 2007 p. 196)
So why do we divide, separate, and tolerate others? There is no place in the Bible that says, “Love the sinner and not the sin.” This is a limiting tolerance view that allows for accepted the objectification of women, “the assumptions of chattel slavery, and even certain views of God.” (Gomes 2007 p. 199) The scandalous Gospel is larger than this. It is one of love, faith, mercy and hope. Look at the world today, and the problems that truly need our attention, do we need to really concern ourselves with the things of pervasive culture wars? “ ‘Faith working through love’ is all that matters, the only standard for Christian inclusiveness is faith working through love; it was for this that Christ came and died on the cross, and it will be by this standard alone that we will be judged.” (Gomes 2007 p.203) As I read Gomes and wrote this, I am reminded of a talk, “The Other Prodigal” by Jeffrey R. Holland, an Apostle in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The other prodigal is about the reaction, jealousy and anger, the brother of the prodigal son felt. His brother was wasteful of his inheritance, but still loved by his father. The father then gently teaches his (other prodigal) the faithful son, he would always be with him and have all that he has. He teaches compassion in stating, “Your brother was lost and now is found.” Elder Holland makes this inclusive statement, “That incomparable counsel helps us remember that the word generosity has the same derivation as the word genealogy, both coming from the Latin genus, meaning of the same birth or kind, the same family or gender. We will always find it easier to be generous when we remember that this person being favored is truly one of our own.” https://www.lds.org/general-conference/2002/04/the-other-prodigal?lang=eng
Many of my very close
friends fall into the label of LGBT community. They are strong and
faithful Christians that only want to be accepted and loved! They have taught
me much as they have supported me through my own trials and adversities that
come with life and living. “If the gospel is truly good news, it has to
be good news for everyone, for it is either an inclusive gospel or no gospel at
all.” (Gomes 2007 p. 207)
Given the above quote, “What does
inclusive mean to you in context of the Bible?”
What do you think that the gospel
requires in today’s quickly changing cultures? What problems does it cause with
I want to look at some contrasting views and how Religion and the Bible are used in politics.
As I have pondered the readings this week, I am struck how
politicians sometimes use scripture to forward their own position or
cause. In doing this they seem to be
causing a paralysis and inability to address the solutions to the problem they
Let’s just take immigration, illegal or otherwise. Nancy Pelosi to forward her stance that there
is a humanitarian crisis at our borders stated her favorite scripture, “To
minister to the needs of God’s creation is an act of worship. To ignore those
needs is to dishonor the God who made us.”
OK, actually, she said, it might not technically be
from the Bible. “I can’t find it in the Bible, but I quote it all the time,”
Pelosi said as she introduced the quote. “I keep reading and reading the Bible—I
know it’s there someplace.
I believe Nancy Pelosi is referring to Proverbs 14:31, He that oppresseth the poor reproacheth his Maker: but he that honoureth him hath mercy on the poor. KJV
Jeff Sessions defended the Trump administration’s policy of
separating immigrant children from their families at the border by referencing
the New Testament. “I would cite you to the Apostle Paul and his clear and wise
command in Romans 13,” Sessions said, “to obey the laws of the government
because God has ordained them for the purpose of order.”
I find it interesting that, both agree there is a humanitarian crisis at the border, yet neither can come together to do the work necessary to make a positive change with solutions. Because of many reasons, all based on mistrust of political parties, they are effectively paralyzed, each asserting they are inerrant in their belief.
use of it in cultural wars, and the use of it to justify intolerance are not unrelated.”
Kutsko, proposes that education needs to focus more on the humanities and social sciences. I have always found it interesting that Social Studies was not one of the mandated classes while Reading, Writing, and Science were.
In March 9, 1832 – Abraham Lincoln stated, “Upon the subject of education, not presuming to dictate any plan or system respecting it, I can only say that I view it as the most important subject which we as a people can be engaged in. That every man may receive at least, a moderate education, and thereby be enabled to read the histories of his own and other countries, by which he may duly appreciate the value of our free institutions, appears to be an object of vital importance.”
Dreisbach, in his Book, Reading the Bible with the Founding Fathers is emphasizing that an, “open a window on the biblically literate culture of the founding era,” thereby providing “insights into the grand American experiment” (19). In a video online in which he talks about the book he emphasizes in greater clarity, “The founder’s believed the Bible’s moral instruction nurtured the internal moral monitors of citizens required to maintain the social discipline necessary to govern themselves.” Even so he gives a couple of warnings;
“The detachment of American history from its generative biblical culture impoverishes our understanding of the American experiment in self-government. P. 10”
“The increasing biblical illiteracy of the modern age almost inevitably distorts the conception Americans have of themselves as a people, the nation, and their political experiment in self-government.” P.20
Both, Dreisbach and Kutsko, seem to believe education is important, though their reasons for the education, slightly differ. Yes, I do believe that non-Christians can benefit from lessons, concepts, and wisdom in the Bible? We all can benefit from the simple instruction to love one another, to treat others as you would want to be treated. Abraham Lincoln’s quote about education, the first part is in my response on Kutsko, the remainder of the quote is below;
“To say nothing of the advantages and satisfaction to be derived from all being able to read the scriptures and other works, both of a religious and moral nature, for themselves. For my part, I desire to see the time when education, and by its means, morality, sobriety, enterprise and industry, shall become much more general than at present, and should be gratified to have it in my power to contribute something to the advancement of any measure which might have a tendency to accelerate the happy period.” — March 9, 1832, Abraham Lincoln
Our politicians today might heed the warnings of both these authors and educate themselves on both the fathers and the Bible and its role in our foundation, to brake their paralysis of ineffectiveness.
“Whom do men say that I the Son of man am?” in
In John W. Pulis’s essay, “In
the Beginning” A Chapter from the Living Testament of Rastafari, we see how the
lyrical oration of the Bible, referred to ‘vibrations,’ “the
revelatory power associated with the word from the acoustics, theatrics, and
performance of livical sound. (Bielo 2009)
I will make my best attempt to apply
the citing-up of the crucial I-tation used by Afro-Jamaican folk culture. I will use one of my Bible favorites,
“Whom do men say that I the Son of man am?”
found in the Gospels of Matthew 16, Luke 9, John7 and 9. I
am not very familiar with Bob Marley (I bet my Dad is though), but, I am
familiar with Tupac Shakur (I know my Dad isn’t). I think that Tupac has that
same connection to lyrical
oration (rap music) to express spiritual messages.
der so [Matthew 16, 13] Bradda, Wha seh dat I be?
D: J, dem seh John, dat baptize I! dem seh, Elias; dem seh, Jeremias, or dem seh, the prophet, Rastafari!
What dem seh cite-up?
D: J, dem Priest seh, dat J be dat Satan; dat
go to KILL I-n-I. dem seh dat son of man dat must lifted high, who dat man?
J: Dem jumble-up de word, mix up de vibes, da
man no see? Esaias dat prophet be fulfilled dat he speak dat I-n-I feel da
vibes. Cite der so faawod, who dat you seh dat I be?
SB: I seh dat r I, dat son of God!
J: Blessed dat SB, fadda mus penetrate de
vibe, Ahh, tru I-n-I de chosen, dat be faawod Peter (rock), on dat rock, I Am,
mak dat church, tell da man, de no jumble-up de words, de no mystery to I-n-I!
Go to all, cite-up dat Word!
Wimbush begins the prologue with a quote by Zora Neale Huston, “Some folks is
born wid they feet on de sun and they kin seek out de inside meanin’ of words.”
– Mules and Men (Wimbush 2012 p. 1) Wimbush as a child, his world exploded with
books and writing. He questioned his elders, questions his elders could not
always answer, the hidden meaning, “coded freighted meanings,” the inside
meaning of things. This began the thesis for this book; “The quest to know over
time less and less about facts – not even about my world or texts at hand – and
not at all about piety, but more and more about how things came to be and how
such things in such arrangements persisted.” (Wimbush 2012 p. 3)
Wimbush to understand when the peoples of the North Atlantic and the peoples
they named as African to perdure (remain in existence) must come to terms with
context and its complexity of ongoing
ramifications. Wimbush explores the
ex-slave writer Olaudah Equiano also known as Gustavas Vassa. Wimbush finds a way forward through
Olaundah’s story and adventure of a black hero, a person of the North Atlantic
slave trading world, “that comes to call himself ‘African,’ ‘Christian,’ and
almost an ‘Englishman.’” (Wimbush 2012 p. 10) Wimbush is able to see and
describe his own life story to Eqiuano’s, and see them both as a type of
“scriptural” story. Through this Wimbush
describes Equiano and his ancestors as Atlantic African. It becomes a story of first contact of a
peoples and the affect on both the peoples as slaves and how it was
“experienced, rationalized, conceptualized and survived.” (Wimbush 2012 p. 11)
can be no serious self-reflection critical work apart from consideration of the
meaning and consequences of such a contact.” (Wimbush 2012 p. 12) Wimbush refers to “A Report to an
Academy” a short story by Franz Kafka, written and published in 1917.
(Kafka’s Ape Story) This story can be a parable or an allegory for the
treatment of Jewish people or the the Atlantic African Slaves. It is a presentation of to the Academy of an
Ape and his transformation to becoming human.
To survive, the Ape, studies humans while caged on the ship, learns to
speak and act like his captures. “The nature that culture uses to create second
nature, the faculty to imitate, make models, explore difference, yield into
becoming the other” (Wimbush 2012 p. 13)
read White Man’s Magic and develop a grasp for what scripturalization means, I
see the quest that Olaudah Equiano and Vincent Wimbush are on, their personal
marronage, or extricating oneself from slavery.
Today, a form of scripturalization, “political conservatives derive
their power from mobilization of constituencies that feel deprived of their
rightful share in government, and regard the cultural consensus against which
they fight to be the wrong one.” (Gomes 2007 p. 59) Equiano had to take his
journey of of educating himself, learn to write, and gain understanding with
the “talking book” that did not include , acknowledge, remained silent, and did
not speak to him, “in order to escape enslavement and orient himself to the
freedom the slavery that is scriptualization,” (Wimbush 2012 p. 233) that white
men’s magic resisted. Vincent Wimbush
had to take this same journey, and we also may be bonded to slavery of our own,
that requires us to take the journey of marronage from scripturalization.
If we are brave enough to walk with Olaudah Equiano and Vincent Wimbush, our lives, will probably be transformed. We will grow, be stretched, and be different. In Kafka’s “A Report to the Academy,” in this story, an ape named Red Peter, who has learned to behave like a human, presents to an academy the story of how he effected his transformation. He begins, “You show me the honor of calling upon me to submit a report to the Academy concerning my previous life as an ape. I cannot comply with your request. Almost five years separate me from my existence as an ape, a short time perhaps when measured by the calendar…This achievement would have been impossible if I had stubbornly wished to hold onto my origin, onto the memories of my youth.” (Kafka 1917)
Wimbush refers to Plato’s, “Allegory of the Cave.” and to Kafka’s, “A Report to an Academy” The cave allegory is interesting because Plato believed that the world needed the philosophical intelligence that he and his student’s had, to guide those who were less intelligent.
Plato’s Allegory of the Cave – Alex Gendler
Franz Kafka’s “A Report to an Academy”
“Kafka’s Ape” as “A Report to an Academy” is often referred to has been made into short plays. It is a metamorphosis allegory about the treatment of the Jewish peoples or racism that still exist today. Vincent Wimbush uses it as a parable of the North Atlantic slaves. Attached are two links, one a video https://vimeo.com/104816698 posted by Howard Rosenstein and the second is the text of the story, http://www.kafka.org/index.php?aid=161 written by Kafka in 1917 and translated by Mauro Nervi Revision: 2011/01/08
Wimbush is hard to read, but I truly have enjoyed him. To me the meaning is two-fold, one is the way Wimbush uses it, as leadership or dominance, in country, politics, and social groups, to create and maintain power over others. “Equiano saw more clearly the nature of ideological structure of the British society, especially its fetishistic uses of the scriptures.” (Wimbush 2012 p. 51) The second is how to understand it and then use it as a wedge to create the change needed that sets us free from the slavery and bondage created through scripturalization. This applies to us all. We can use what Wimbush is trying to teach us to recognize what in the Bible’s ancient text was scripturalized to free us to see the good news of the scriptures. “Now the Bible was my only companion and comfort; I prized it much, with many thanks to God that I read it for myself, and was not tossed about or led by man’s devices and notions.” Olaudah Equiano (Wimbush 2012 p. 180)
I still have a lot more to learn and grasp from this. My eyes are opened but the light is causing me to squint.
In Genesis 1: 27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. In Genesis 2: 20 the scriptures say, “but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him.”The Hebrew phrase עזר כנגדו (ezer kenegedo) is a three-part word with a complex meaning. The first is simply “helper”, second, more complex “like” and face to face,” third, “of him.” Otherwise”a helper like his opposite.” In my opinion this means that Eve was to be his “other half,” like him, but with the opposite attributes. “to make to be face to face,” and is always used to mean “to tell” in the sense of causing another to come face to face in order to tell them something. They were intended to work together and not be rudderless. (Benner 1999)
So, how does it go from Genesis 1-2 to Genesis 34 and the tragic tail of Dinah? Lets start from the premise that the writers of the bible wrote form a patriarchal perspective and translators wrote in a manner to hold onto the power structure they understood.
A short synopsis of Genesis 34 is that Dinah the only daughter of Jacob, is raped by Shechem the son of Hamor, who is the ruler of the country. Genesis 34: 2-3, “2 And when Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, prince of the country, saw her, he took her, and lay with her, and defiled her. 3 And his soul clave unto Dinah the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the damsel, and spake kindly unto the damsel.” (KJV)
When Jacob finds out he is grieved and waits for his sons to return from the fields. Shechem ask his Father to go to Jacob and ask if he can take Dinah to be his wife. Hamor and Jacob and his sons agreed that Shechem can take Dinah to wife if every male of you be circumcised (essentially becoming Jewish). Hamor and Shechem agreed and after they all were circumcised and took Dinah to their home. Simeon and Levi killed all the male including Hamor and Shechem and Brought Dinah home. To many this could be seen as, Dinah, representing women, and if women would stay in their proper place they would be protected from harm.
Nowhere in this account does it talk about how, Dinah or her mother, Leah, felt about any of this. This is an example of Biblical Patriarch not only showing that men are the leaders, head of families, but also the subservient role of women. One that causes and tolerates victimization. John Calvin, French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva, seems to confirm the patriarchal attitude and blame the victim, with this statement, “Dinah is ravished, because, having left her father’s house, she wandered about more freely than was proper. She ought to have remained quietly at home, as both the Apostle teaches and nature itself dictates; for to girls the virtue is suitable, which the proverb applies to women, that they should be (oijkouroi,) or keepers of the house.” (Calvin 1536) This is further reinforced by JOSEPHUS, who said accordingly, “she (Dinah) had been attending a festival; but it is highly probable that she had been often and freely mixing in the society of the place and that she, being a simple, inexperienced, and vain young woman, had been flattered by the attentions of the ruler’s son. There must have been time and opportunities of acquaintance to produce the strong attachment that Shechem had for her.” (Robert Jamieson 1871). This strong Patriarchal view has existed from the nearly the beginning of the Human existence.
As I have read from, Bielo, Enns, Kugel, Wimbush and Gomes, they all are challenging us to read the scriptures with new and questioning eyes. Gomes gives a strong and stern warning about the use of the Bible, “For the Bible to be seen as an instrument of control rather than as one of liberation is to do violence to the substance of the Bible.” (Gomes 2007 p. 43) With a patriarchal view that has existed for so long is there hope for the change? Gomes “The scandalous Gospel of Jesus,” was written in 2007, he focuses on the New testament Gospel of Jesus Christ, when he states, “When I remember that the literal translation of the term gospel is ‘good news.’” (Gomes 2007 p. 1) Gomes in this book to challenge and ask ourselves to go beyond and embrace the radical suggestions of the Bible, which is its “good news.” Gomes sounds very similar to Peter Enns, “Depending, then, upon how one reads and interprets, either the Bible is a textbook for the status quo, or it is a recipe for social change and transformation.” (Gomes 2007 p. 12) Gomes, shows how the scriptures were used to separate Jewish from Christian, Catholic from Protestant, women as less than men, black less than white, etc… “The landscape of human history is littered with the debris of ideals sacrificed to the idol of the ideal, and the existential evidence, from the corruption of of ancient kings to the unsavory influence of contemporary fundamentalist fanatics.” (Gomes 2007 p. 35) Through the Gospel of good news, glad tidings, Jesus asks us to be His instrument of His full and complete transformational power.
Helga and Bob Edwards, created a website for the purpose of “SPREADING THE GOOD NEWS, EMPOWERING WOMEN IN CHRIST.” (Edwards 2019) I have attached a pod cast url of theirs, https://podtail.com/en/podcast/the-bible-message-without-patriarchy/genesis-34-the-rape-of-dinah-confronting-victim-bl/ , that discusses Genesis 34, its patrarchal view, and how we can confront, abuse and victim blaming. It is hard to image 20, 30, 40, or even 50 years ago for all the diversness of today to openly be able discuss such deep topics. Gomes points to Kennedy, a Catholic becoming President, Martin Luther King Jr’s march for ethnis equality, Women becoming preachers, priest and Bishops, and the LGTBQ movement of today. One of my good friends and classmates from high school is the executive director of “Oneiowa” ( https://oneiowa.org/ ) an openly gay married man. I know when I was in high school in 2003, that was not possible. All of this progress and change is certainly good new!
So, what is the good news about Genesis 34? It is that we can see it for what it is, text written by men, that did not yet have the, good news of Jesus Christ. Gomes in the chapter “An Inclusive Gospel,” ends it with, “If the Gospel is to truly good news, it has to be good news for everyone, for it is either an inclusive gospel or no gospel at all…In a world surrounded on every hand by bad news, we turn now to the reasonable hope of the gospel, the good news toward which scripture, Jesus, and the Spirit all point.” (Gomes 2007 p. 217)
What influence (or not) has the Bible had on my life? Favorite Scripture Verse
I have the King James Version and the NRSV versions of the Bible. When I was in High School, Each year I had a seminary class through the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, that focused on one of the standard works, The Old Testament, New Testament, Book of Mormon, Church History, Doctrine and Covenants. Because of this I read the majority of the KJV. I also repeated this as student at Brigham Young University at a deeper level.
As an ILIFF student I have had the opportunity to use and read the NRSV of the Bible. It is a little easier for me to understand, especially when I cross reference it with the King James Version. Because I have often struggled with my confidence and abilities, causing me anxiety and discouragement, one of my favorite scriptures is:
“Cast not away
therefore your confidence, which hath great recompence of reward. For ye have
need of patience, that, after ye have done the will of God, ye might receive
the promise.” [Hebrews 10: 35–36 KJV]
“35 Do not,
therefore, abandon that confidence of yours; it brings a great reward. 36 For
you need endurance, so that when you have done the will of God, you may receive
what was promised.” [Hebrews 10: 35–36 NRSV]
is significant to me because it brings me comfort and peace that allows me to
refocus and tune into that still small voice.
Fear of failure has the ability to paralyze the best of us. Paul, speaks to all of us, through this
scripture, encouraging us not to fear. We will have adversity and
discouragement but if we keep confidence in the Lord, Jesus Christ, we will
overcome and grow, intellectually, spiritually, and in his grace. It has helped me through tough times and is
helping me now, through the toughness of my Chaplain residency at a level one trauma